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Debt prospects and challenges for developing countries in the continuing pandemic
12–1pm 1 March 2022
Developing countries already held precarious levels of sovereign debt prior to COVID-19. Now, over half of all low-income countries are at high risk of or are currently in debt distress, and some middle-income countries face debt sustainability challenges as well. In his address, Masood Ahmed will lay out the current debt situation, explain initiatives by the global community to promote debt sustainability and restructuring, and present a path forward.
Masood Ahmed is President of the Center for Global Development. He joined the Center in January 2017, capping a 35-year career driving economic development policy initiatives relating to debt, aid effectiveness, trade, and global economic prospects at major international institutions including the IMF, World Bank, and DFID.read more
Co-ethnic neighbourhoods and migrant labour market outcomes
12.30–1.30pm 16 February 2022
Contrary to other immigrant-receiving countries, the impact of co-ethnic neighbourhoods on immigrants’ life outcomes has been understudied in Australia. Using microdata from the 2006–2016 Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, this paper estimates the causal impact of the size of co-ethnic neighbourhoods on immigrant labour force participation, employment, hours worked, and income. We address the fundamental problem of individual and location sorting by applying individual-fixed effects, controlling for residential mobility, and using an exogenous measure of co-ethnic neighbourhood size. We found a negative effect on labour participation and income when we do not control for residential mobility. However, when we control for residential mobility, residence in co-ethnic neighbourhoods is no longer statistically significant and the point estimates are tiny, which highlight the importance of stringent methodological choices that control for settlement trajectories. Our findings suggest that efforts by the Australian government to settle immigrants in regional areas with a limited migrant population should not affect the labour market outcomes of immigrants.
Dr Toan Nguyen is a Research Fellow at the Development Policy Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, ANU.
This presentation is based on a research paper, co-authored by the speaker. The draft paper is available upon request.
This seminar is part of the Labour mobility and the Pacific webinar series.» read more
Have living standards improved in PNG over the last two decades?
1.30–2.30pm 25 February 2022
Did living standards improve in Papua New Guinea over the last two decades, and especially as a result of the resource boom of the 2000s? This question remains unanswered to date. The best source to answer it is the PNG Demographic and Health Surveys for 1996, 2006 and 2016–18. Analysis of these surveys leads to three conclusions. First, there are clearly some ways in which living standards have improved: more households have rainwater tanks; more children are at school, albeit from a low base; and childhood mortality rates have fallen. Second, there are areas of regress: less access to traditional media and worse health services. Third, there are areas of stagnation: no growth in the importance of non-agricultural jobs, and little sign of significantly improved status for and equity of women. Overall, the results show some benefits from economic growth, but also areas of real concern, and little sign of the structural transformation needed for sustained and successful development. Interestingly, the analysis also reveals a trend to convergence between urban and rural living standards.
Professor Stephen Howes is Director of the Development Policy Centre.
This presentation is based on the speakers’ chapter in the forthcoming ANU-UPNG edited volume on contemporary issues in PNG.read more
The Fourth Industrial Revolution, COVID-19, and women
12–1pm 8 February 2022
Climate change, ageing populations, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution have presented the world with great challenges. Then, COVID-19 transformed our lives overnight, and we as individuals and as a society have struggled to understand and cope with this ‘new normal’. In her address, Professor Eun Mee Kim will reflect on these societal changes, especially on her own experience as President of Ewha Womans University in South Korea, and on what needs to be done so that existing inequalities are not replicated into the future.
Professor Eun Mee Kim is the 17th President of Ewha Womans University. She is Professor in the Graduate School of International Studies and Director of the Ewha Global Health Institute for Girls and Women. Professor Kim is globally recognised as a leading scholar on international development.read more